Literature

Feel free to peruse our literature, including brochures, posters, and background info!

Brochures

Agile R100 Product Brochure

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Capture elusive binding data with Agile R100, a breakthrough assay platform that lets you confirm primary screen results from small molecule weak binders in high concentrations, right at your bench.

Revel Early Access Partnership Brochure

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Nanomed introduces Revel, a breakthrough high-throughput direct measurement biophysical platform for fragment-based primary screening.

Agile R100 Biosensor Selection Brochure

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For a quick overview on how to select the right Agile R100 biosensor for your experiment, see this 2-page flyer!

Agile R100 Kinetic Characterization Brochure

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What does the Agile R100 graphene biosensor do? How does the technology work? What are some examples of measurements from the tool? See this overview brochure for answers!

Feature Highlight: Sense in Complex Samples: Solvents & Detergents

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PAPER SUMMARY

  • DMSO is often needed to keep high concentrations of small molecule compounds soluble during early stage drug discovery. This is a problem for common optical kinetic binding platforms, as DMSO negatively impacts optical properties.
  • Agile R100 leverages an orthogonal technology called Field Effect Biosensing (FEB), an electrical technique that is unaffected by changes in optical properties. The platform easily senses in optically challenging samples such as buffer containing 10% DMSO.
  • In this technical note, we share Agile R100 kinetic binding data (kon, koff, and KD) from the interaction of 3 small molecule compounds dissolved in 10% DMSO binding with their respective targets – 2 GPCRs solubilized in additional detergents and a cytokine protein.

Posters

Novel Graphene-based Biosensor for Early Detection of Zika Virus Infection

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Presented at the CDC in Atlanta in 2017.

This poster shows measurements of Zika protein at 18 ng/mL sensitivity and additional measurements in serum at a clinically relevant level of sensitivity. It also shows specificity versus the Japanese Encephalitis virus, a potentially co-founding infection.

Agile R100: An Orthogonal Biosensing Tool for Affinity Ranking During Drug Discovery Hit Validation

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Presented at the Drug Discovery Chemistry Conference in San Diego in 2017.
This poster displays a simple SAR study performed with Agile R100 using TNFα as the immobilized target and three inhibitor compounds as analyte. The activity and affinity of the inhibitor compounds are quantified with dose-response curves and kinetic binding data.

Direct Detection of Borrelia Burgdorferi Antigen Using Field Effect Biosensing (FEB) Technology

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Presented at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta in 2016.
This poster depicts the detection of various concentrations of lysed Borrelia burgdorferi cells with AGILE R100.

Novel Protein Binding Kinetics Measurements in Complex Biological Samples Using Agile

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Presented at the Experimental Biology Conference in San Diego in 2016.

This poster shows results from measurements directly from cell lysate, protein extract, growth media, tissue lysate, and undiluted plasma.

Agile Sensors Quantify Interactions in Challenging Samples for Drug Discovery

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Presented at the Drug Discovery Chemistry Conference in San Diego in 2016.
This poster shows results from measurements with quantity-limited samples (50 µg of total protein) and at fM concentration.

Background Info

Equilibrium Analysis Guide

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Excerpt: In equilibrium analysis, the concentration of T is held constant and the concentration of A is varied over a series of equilibrium binding experiments. Equilibrium binding experiments with increasing concentrations of A are repeated until the plateau value of the binding curve no longer increases, indicating that T has been saturated (i.e. no more AT can form).

Assay Development Tips for COOH Agile Biosensors

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The sensitivity and specificity of a biosensor are directly related to the availability and functionality of immobilized capture molecules, but ambient compounds may also nonspecifically contribute to the sensor response, thereby decreasing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Blocking and quenching steps are used in biosensors to reduce the contributions from background compounds that interfere with the measurement signal. Several aspects of biosensor functionalization can be optimized to drive down the effects of nonspecific interactions and increase the SNR for targeted detection, critical to sensing low concentrations of target analyte with low signal. This technical note demonstrates possible blocking and quenching techniques useful for assay development with the COOH Agile R100 biosensor.

Application Notes

Affinity Ranking of SPD304, Evans Blue, and Trypan Blue to TNFα Using Agile R100

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Affinity ranking is critical to optimizing the relationship between a target protein and a potential drug compound during the hit-to-lead optimization phase of drug discovery. In this application note, Agile R100 characterizes the activity of the target protein TNFα interacting with the small molecule drug compounds, SPD304, Evans Blue, and Trypan Blue in order to rank order by affinity.

Technical Notes

Kinetic Binding Analysis on Agile R100

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Biosensors are used in a variety of fields to characterize biomolecular interactions in real-time. The results of these interaction studies inform the development of the next generation of diagnostics and therapeutics and provide insights into the mechanisms by which pathogens evolve and infect. Label-free assays are particularly useful in these endeavors because they eliminate both the chance of the added label interfering with the native binding chemistry and the additional chemistry steps to attach the label to the molecule under investigation. This technical note provides an overview of the kinetic binding data collected by Agile R100.

Comparison Studies

Agile R100 versus MicroCal iTC200 Kinetic Binding Data

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Agile R100 is a graphene biosensor with unprecedented functionality, providing label-free, real-time kinetic binding data. As a novel technology, Agile R100 is compared to MicroCal iTC200 to demonstrate its benefits compared to a standard kinetic binding analysis tool, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). In this study, kinetic binding data between the two instruments is compared by measuring Rho guanosine triphosphate hydrolase enzyme (GTPase) interacting with GTPase activating protein (GAP). The association and dissociation binding rate (ka and kd, respectively) and dissociation constants (KD) are reported. Agile R100 has a precise binding affinity measurement (KD = 1.35 ± 0.06 µM), comparable to MicroCal iTC200 (KD = 2.7 ± 0.3 µM), while also obtaining ka and kd values. Additionally, Agile R100 uses up to 30 million times less sample material and up to 30 times less sample volume and can perform 2.5 times more measurements in a given workday compared to MicroCal iTC200.

Guides